X-Bar Syntax
Ray Jackendoff, 1977

Chapter 1. Preliminaries

1.1 Goals

Children learn languages quickly from insufficient data. Therefore, the child's brain must start out with a significant amount of computational machinery to assist in this effort. However, the fact that the various languages differ proves that there is some learning involved, not everything is innate.

This book will address the theory of phrase structure and attempt to present an account of lexical categories; what they are, how they work, and how they are related to syntactic categories. Although the data examined here will be from the English language, it is clear that the proposed theories will need to be tested against the data of many languages.

1.2 Assumptions About the Structure of Linguistic Theory

In most details, the "Standard Theory" of Aspects of the Theory of Syntax will be adopted here, that the grammar consist of five components, the Lexicon, the Phrase Structure component, the Transformational component, the Phonological component, and the Semantic component. The lexical insertion rule is less restricted in that it checks only the lexical category and strict-subcategorization. Selection restrictions are considered as conditions on semantic interpretations. The strict cyclic application of rules is adopted as in Aspects.

Regarding semantic interpretation, this book will adopt a version of the "Extended Standard Theory" (EST) in which the semantics of a sentence may be determined by surface structure and possibly other details in addition to the standard interpretation of deep structure. And finally, the "trace theory" from a later version of EST will be adopted.

1.3 Lexicalism and Interpretivism

Chapter 2. Motivation for the X-Bar Convention

2.1 Chomsky's Arguments

2.2 Adjectives and Nouns

2.3 Adjectives and Adverbs

2.4 Coming Attractions

Chapter 3. A Theory of Phrase Structure

3.1 Reformulation of the X-Bar Convention

3.2 The Syntactic Distinctive Features

3.3 The Phrase Structure Rule Schema

3.4 The Generalized Subject Relation

3.4.1 Modifying Chomsky's Analysis

3.4.2 Arguments for the Uniform-Level Subject Relation

3.4.3 Treatment of the Complementizer

3.5 The Auxiliary

3.6 Two Exceptions to the Uniform Three-Level Hypothesis

3.7 Summary and Generalization of Rules

3.8 Glossary of Lexical and Syntactic Categories

Chapter 4. Complements

4.1 The Three Levels of Complements

4.2 The V' and N' Complements

4.2.1 Easy Parts of V'

4.2.2 Particles and Predicates

4.2.3 The N' Complement

4.2.4 Generalization of V' and N' and the Definition of Object

4.3 The V'' and N'' Complements

4.4 Complements of [-Subj] Categories

4.4.1 Adjectives

4.4.2 Adverbs

4.4.3 Prepositions

4.4.4 Particles

4.4.5 Case Markers and Prepositions

4.5 Generalization of Phrase Structure Rules

4.6 Summary

4.7 Appendix: The Passive and Related Rules

4.7.1 NP-Preposing

4.7.2 Agent-Postposing

4.7.3 NP-Postposing

4.7.4 The Determiner

4.8 Appendix: Arguments for Intraposition

4.9 List of Tranformations

Chapter 5. NP Specifiers

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Articles and Quantifiers

5.2.1 Semantic Roles of NP Specifiers

5.2.2 Phrase Structure Rules

5.2.3 We and You

5.3 The Partitive

5.3.1 Partitives as N' Complements

5.3.2 Position of the Quantifier in Partitive Constructions

5.3.3 The Partitive Constraint

5.3.4 Substantivization

5.4 Pseudopartitives

5.4.1 Arguments for the Construction

5.4.2 Pseudoprtitive Specifier Constraints

5.5 Numerals

5.5.1 Comparison to Quantifiers and Group Nouns

5.5.2 Numerals as Nouns

5.5.3 Three Adjustment Rules

5.6 Summary

Chapter 6. Specifiers of X'''

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Measure Phrases

6.3 Quantifer Phrases in X''

6.4 Degree Phrases

6.4.1 Attachment of Deg''' to Q'''

6.4.2 The Degree System of Adjectives and Adverbs

6.4.3 Coparative Specifiers

6.4.4 Enough

6.4.5 Summary of Degree Words

6.5 Recursion in Degree Phrases

6.6 Summary of Rules

Chapter 7. Relative Clauses

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Appositives

7.3 Interpretation of the Appositive Relative Pronoun

7.4 Constraints on the Determiner and the Head in Restrictives

7.5 Restrictive Relatives on Quantified NPs

7.6 Stacking of Restrictive Relatives

7.7 Conjoined Heads

7.8 Interpretation of the Restrictive Relative Pronoun

7.9 Appendix: Against the Conjoined Source for Appositives

Chapter 8. Degree Clauses

8.1 Introduction

8.2 The Extraposition Theory and its Evidence for the X-Bar Convention

8.3 Arguments Against Extraposition of Degree Clauses

8.4 A Generalization in the X''-Complement Theory

8.5 The Location of the Binding Degree Word

8.6 Why an Interpretive Theory is Needed

8.7 Interpreting PRO

8.8 Recapitulation

Chapter 9. Deverbalizing Rules

9.1 The Deverbalizing Rule Schema

9.2 Gerundive Nominals

9.3 Tensed Complements and Free Relatives

9.4 Gerundive PPs

9.5 Passive VPs

9.6 Final Remarks

Chapter 10. More General Implications

10.1 Explanatory Adequacy

10.2 The Challenge for Semantics

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