The Sound Pattern of English
Noam Chomsky, Morris Halle, 1968

Preface

Part I. General Survey

Chapter 1. Setting

1. Grammar

2. Linguistic Universals

3. Phonetic Representations

4. Components of a Grammar

5. Surface Structures

51. Lexical and Phonological Representations

52. On the Abstractness of Lexical Representations

53. Analysis into Words

6. Summary

Chapter 2. A Sketch of English Phonology and Phonological Theory

1. The Principle of the Transformational Cycle and its Application to English Stress Contours

2. On the Reality of Phonetic Representation

3. The Transformational Cycle within a Word

4. The Segmental Phonology of Englisg - A First Approximation

5. More on the Transformational Cycle within a Word

6. Particular and Universal Grammar

7. On the Abstractness of Lexical Representation

8. Vowel Alternations

Part II. English Phonology

Chapter 3. The Transformational Cycle in English Phonology

01. Introductory Remarks

011. The Rules of the Phonological Component

012. Notational Conventions

013. Distinctive Features

0131. Boundary Features

0132. Segmental Features

02. Stress Placement in Verbs - A First Approximation

03. Stress Placement in Nouns - A First Approximation

04. Alternating Stress Rule

05. Stress Placement in Adjectives

06. Derivational Affixes

07. Summary of Stress Placement Rules

08. Nuclear Stress

09. Compounds

10. Complex Verbs

11. Nouns Derived from Verbs

12. Revised Version of the Main Stress Rule

13. Complex Nouns and Adjectives

14. Vowel Reduction

15. Further Investigation of Derivational Affixes

16. Stress as a Lexical Category

Chapter 4. Word-Level Phonology

1. Introductory Remarks

2. Phonological and Phonetic Representations

21. Lexical Redundancy Rules

22. Treatment of Exceptions

3. The Features

4. Vowel Alterations

41. Alterations of Nonback Vowels

42. Alterations of Back Vowels

43. The Vowel Shift Rule

431. Refinements and Extensions of the Vowel Shift Rule

4311. Rounding and Backness Adjustments

4312. Rounding and Stress

432. Final Weak-Stressed [o]

433. The Diphthong [õy]

434. Prevocalic y-Glides

435. Vowel Shift for Lax Vowels

436. Further Remarks on Diphthongization

437. Further Remarks on Phonetically Low Vowels

438. Rounding Adjustment

5. Further Consequences of the Vowel Shift Rule

6. The Consonant System of English

Chapter 5. Summary of Rules

1. Readjustment Rules

2. Phonological Rules

Part 3. History

Chapter 6. The Evolution of the Modern English Vowel System

1. Introductory Remarks

11. On Linguistic Change

12. General Comments on the Early History of Modern English

13. Concerning Exchange Rules

2. John Hart (1551-1579)

21. The Evidence

22. Hart's Pattern

3. John Wallis (1653-1699)

31. The Evidence

32. Wallis' Pattern

4. Christopher Cooper (1687)

41. The Evidence

42. Cooper's Pattern

5. T. Batchelor (1809)

51. The Evidence

52. Batchelor's Pattern

Part 4. Phonological Theory

Chapter 7. The Phonetic Framework

1. Phonetic Representation

11. Phonetic Transcription and the Speech Signal

12. Phonetic and Phonological Representation

2. The Phonetic Features

21. The Neutral Position

22. Vocal Cord Vibration - Spontaneous and Otherwise

3. Major Class Features

31. Sonorant-Nonsonorant (Obstruent)

32. Vocalic-Nonvocalic

33. Consonantal-Nonconsonantal

4. Cavity Features

41. Primary Strictures

411. Coronal-Noncoronal

412. Anterior-Nonanterior

42. Features Relating to the Body of the Tongue: High-Nonhigh, Low-Nonlow, Back-Nonback

421. On the Relationship between the features "Diffuseness," "Compactness," and "Gravity" and the Features of the Preceding Sections

422. Degrees of Narrowing in the Vocal Tract

43. Rounded-Nonrounded

44. Distributed-Nondistributed

45. Covered-Noncovered

46. Glottal Constrictions

47. Secondary Aperatures

471. Nasal-Nonnasal

472. Lateral-Nonlateral

5. Manner of Articulation Features

51. Continuant-Noncontinuant (Stop)

52. Release Features: Instantaneous Release-Delayed Release

521. Release of Primary Closures

522. Release of Secondary Closures

523. Comments on the Release Features

53. Supplementary Movements

531. Suction

532. Pressure

533. Order of Releases in Sounds with Multiple Closures

54. Tense-Nontense (Lax)

6. Source Features

61. Heightened Subglottal Pressure

62. Voiced-Nonvoiced (Voiceless)

63. Strident-Nonstrident

7. Prosodic Features

Chapter 8. Principles of Phonology

1. On the Evaluation Procedure and the Form of Phonological Rules

2. Segments as Feature Complexes

3. The Ordering of the Rules

4. Variables as Feature Coefficients

5. Metathesis, Contraction, and Elision

6. Boundaries

61. Formative Boundary: +

62. The Boundary # and the Notion "Word"

63. The Boundary =

64. Boundaries as Units

65. Readjustment Rules

7. Diacritic Features

8. Lexical Representation

Chapter 9. Epilogue and Prologue: The Intrinsic Content of Phonetic Features

1. Some Unresolved Problems

2. A Theory of "Markedness"

21. The Marking Conventions

22. Conventions for the Major Categories

23. Conventions for Vowels and the Representation of Vowels in the Lexicon

24. Conventions for True Consonants and the Representation of Consonants in the Lexicon

25. Conventions for Liquids

26. Conventions for Glides

3. Markedness and Lexical Representation

4. Markedness and Phonological Rules: Linking


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