Semantic Information Processing
Marvin Minsky (ed), 1968

Preface
How can one make machines understand things? This book is a collection of studies in artificial intelligence, the science of making machines do things that would require SIPopi#intelligence if done by men". Most of the chapters are slightly edited PhD theses.

Chapter 1. Introduction
Marvin L. Minsky

1.1 Survey

1.2 Organization of the Book

1.3 Artificial Intelligence and its Cybernetic Background

1.4 The Period between 1955 and 1962

1.5 Formality

1.6 Generality

1.7 Learning

1.8 Knowledge

1.9 Grammar, Syntax, and Parsing Programs

1.10 Machine Translation of Languages

1.11 How Much Semantic?

1.12 Relevance and Structure

1.13 Practical Problems of Mechanizing Large Models

Chapter 2. SIR: A Computer Program for Semantic Information Retrieval
Bertram Raphael

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Semantic Information Retrieval Systems

2.3 Representations of Semantic Information

2.4 SIR Treatment of Restricted Natural Language

2.5 Behavior and Operation of SIR

2.6 Formalization and Generalization of SIR

2.7 Conclusions

Chapter 3. Natural Language Input for a Computer Problem-Solving System
Daniel G. Bobrow

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Semantic Generation and Analysis of Discourse

3.3 Programming Formalisms and Language Manipulation

3.4 Transformation of English to the STUDENT Deductive Model

3.5 Storage of Global Information

3.6 Solution of Simultaneous Equations

3.7 Conclusion

Chapter 4. Semantic Memory
M. Ross Quillian

4.1 The Role of Semantic Memory

4.2 The Memory Model

4.3 Use of the Memory Model in a Simulation Program

4.4 The Memory Model as a Basis for Theory of How People Comprehend Language

4.5 Some Final Implications and Relations to Linguistic Theory

Chapter 5. A Program for the Solution of Geometric-Analogy Intelligence Test Questions
Thomas G. Evans

5.1 Introduction

5.2 The Complete Solution Process: Two Examples

5.3 Analogy: Part 1

5.4 Analogy: Part 2

5.5 Results and Discussion

5.6 Conclusions

Chapter 6. A Deductive Question-Answering System
Fischer Black

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Statement, Question, and Answer

6.3 Deduction

6.4 Stopping Endless Deduction

6.5 Avoiding Endless Deduction

6.6 Examples

6.7 Efficiency

Chapter 7. Programs with Common Sense
John McCarthy

7.1 The Advice Taker

7.2 Situations, Actions, and Causal Laws

Chapter 8. Descriptive Languages and Problem Solving
Marvin L. Minsky

8.1 Introduction

8.2 The Need for Analysis

8.3 Conclusion

Chapter 9. Matter, Mind, and Models
Marvin L. Minsky

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Knowledge and Models

9.3 Models of Models

9.4 Dimorphism of our World Models

9.5 The Central Argument: Belief in Dualism

9.6 Heuristic Value of Quasi-Separate Models

9.7 Interpreters

9.8 Free Will

9.9 Conclusion


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