Phonology, Theory and Analysis
Larry M. Hyman, foreword by Victoria A. Fromkin, 1975

Foreword by Victoria A. Fromkin
This book deals with both phonological theory and descriptive analysis, "recognizing and demonstrating that every phonological analysis is dependent on theory". The theory of Chomsky and Halle is "set against the background of earlier phonologists like
Trubetskoy , Martinet, Jacobson , Sapir, Pike , and Firth".

The book is primarily a textbook, but it is more than that. It summarizes what we have learned about the "sound systems of human language and also reveals some of the gaps in our knowledge". And it proposes certain "modifications in current phonological theory". Technical terms are "explained and exemplified by language data drawn from more than seventy languages from Akan to Zulu".

When teaching an introductory phonology course, a linguist must either devote the course to a particular theory or "reflect a wider range of views on the nature of sound systems ...". "In writing Phonology, my aim has been to present what I feel to be the major advances in the study of phonology over the past several decades. ... I have attempted to provide a historical perspective on the evolution of phonological study".

Chapter 1. What Is Phonology?

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Phonetics and Phonology

1.3 Redundancy and Distinctiveness

1.4 Levels of Sound Representation

1.4.1 Phonological and Phonetic Constraints

1.4.2 Phonological Rules

1.5 Some Universals of Phonological Systems

1.5.1 Phonological Inventories

1.5.2 Language Acquisition

1.5.3 Language Change

1.6 The Psychological Reality of Phonological Descriptions

1.6.1 Linguistic Intuitions

1.6.2 Foreign Accents

1.6.3 Speech Errors

1.6.4 Language Acquisition

1.7 Summary

Chapter 2. Distinctive Feature Theory

2.1 The Need for Distinctive Features

2.2 Trubetzkoy's Theory of Distinctive Oppositions

2.2.1 Bilateral, Multilateral, Proportional, and Isolated Oppositions

2.2.2 Privative, Gradual, and Equipollent Oppositions

2.2.3 Constant and Neutralizable Oppositions

2.3 Jacobson's Theory of Distinctive Features

2.3.1 Articulatory vs. Acoustic Features

2.3.2 Binary vs. Nonbinary Features

2.3.3 The Distinctive Features of Jacobson and Halle The Major Class Features The Distinctive Features of Vowels The Distinctive Features of Consonants Primary Articulations Secondary Articulations Summary

2.4 The Distinctive Features of Chomsky and Halle

2.4.1 The Major Class Features

2.4.2 Primary Placement Features for Vowels and Consonants The Features High, Back, and Low The Features Anterior and Coronal Secondary Articulations Additional Features

2.5 Further Remarks and Revisions

2.5.1 The Feature Labial

2.5.2 The Treatment of Labiovelars

2.5.3 Binarity

2.5.4 Conclusion

Chapter 3. Phonological Analysis

3.0 Different Views of the Phoneme

3.1 The Phoneme as a Phonetic Reality

3.1.1 Minimal Pairs

3.1.2 Complementary Distribution

3.1.3 Phonetic Similarity

3.1.4 Free Variation

3.1.5 Discovery Procedures

3.2 The Phoneme as a Phonological Reality

3.2.1 Phonemic Overlapping

3.2.2 Neutralization

3.3 The Phoneme as a Psychological Reality

3.3.1 Levels of Adequacy

3.3.2 Grammatical Prerequisites to Phonology

3.3.3 Morphophonemes

3.3.4 Systematic Phonemics

3.3.5 Phonological Abstractness

3.4 General Considerations in Setting Up Underlying Forms

3.4.1 Predictability

3.4.2 Economy

3.4.3 Pattern Congruity

3.4.4 Plausibilty

Chapter 4. Phonological Simplicity

4.1 Simplicity, Economy, and Generality

4.1.1 Lexical Simplicity vs. Rule Simplicity

4.1.2 The Simplicity Metric

4.2 Feature Counting

4.2.1 Feature Counting in the Lexicon Morpheme Structure Rules (MSRs) Morpheme Structure Conditions (MSCs)

4.2.2 Feature Counting in Phonological Rules

4.3 Consequences of Feature Counting

4.3.1 Rule Formalisms Feature-Saving Formalisms Abbreviatory Formalisms Brace Notation Bracket Notation Parenthesis Notation Angled Bracket Notation Alpha Notation The Problem of Notational Equivalence Summary

4.3.2 Rule Ordering

4.3.3 Global Rules

4.4 An Evaluation of Feature Counting

4.4.1 One Phoneme or Two?

4.4.2 Derivational Constraints

Chapter 5. Phonological Naturalness

5.1 Natualness

5.1.1 Natural Classes

5.1.2 Natural Segments Prague School Markedness Universal Markedness Markedness in Generative Phonology

5.1.3 Natural Systems

5.2 Natural Rules

5.2.1 Linking Conventions

5.2.2 Natural Assimilation Rules

5.2.3 The Relativity of Rule Naturalness

5.2.4 Strengthening and Weakening Preferred Syllable Structure Consonant Strengthening and Weakening Vowel Strengthening and Weakening

5.2.5 The Phonetic Basis of Natural Rules

5.2.6 The Denaturalization of Natural Rules Telescoping Morphologization Rule Inversion

5.2.7 Rule Naturalness as a Phonological Criterion

5.2.8 Rule Simplicity as a Phonological Criterion

Chapter 6. Suprasegmental Phonology

6.0 The Study of Suprasegmentals

6.1 Suprasegmental Units

6.1.1 Phonological Units The Syllable Defining the Syllable The Syllable in Generative Phonology Other Phonological Suprasegmentals

6.1.2 Grammatical Units The Statement of (Underlying) Sequential Constraints The Statement of Phonological Rules: Boundaries The Transformational Cycle

6.2 Suprasegmentals of Prominence

6.2.1 Stress What Is a Stress Language? Factors Determining Stress Placement Grammatical Factors Phonological Factors Factors Determined by Stress Placement Natrual Stress Rules Conceptual Naturalness Phonetic Naturalness Degrees of Stress

6.2.2 Tone What Is a Tone Language? The Lexical Representation of Tone Segmental vs. Suprasegmental Representation of Tone Contour Tones vs. Sequences of Level Tones Distinctive Features of Tone Natural Tone Rules Phonetic Tone Rules Assimilation Simplification Morphophonemic Tone Rules Dissimilation Copying Polarization Replacement Floating Tones Terraced-Level Languages Downdrift Downstep Intonation and Tone Consonant Types and Tone

6.2.3 Typologies of Prominence (Dynamic) Stress vs. Pitch Accent (Musical Stress) Monotonic vs. Polytonic Accent

6.3 Other Suprasegmentals

6.3.1 Vowel Harmony Types of Vowel Harmony Approaches to Vowel Harmony

6.3.2 Nasalization

Appendix: List of Symbols

Appendix: Notes on Phonetic Transcriptions

Appendix: Vowel Chart

Appendix: Consonant Chart

Appendix: Distinctive Feature Matrices

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