**Chapter 1. Introduction**

**1.1. Voice Source Parameter Measurement and the Speech Signal**

**1.2. A Short Look at the Areas of Application**

**1.3. Organization of the Book**

**Chapter 2. Basic Terminology. A Short Introduction to Digital Signal Processing**

**2.1. The Simplified Model of Speech Excitation**

**2.2. Digital Signal Processing 1: Signal Representation**

**2.3. Digital SIgnal Processing 2: Filters**

**2.4. Time-Variant Systems. The Priciple of Short-Term Analysis**

**2.5. Definition of the Task. The Linear Model of Speech Production**

**2.6. A First Categorization of Pitch Determination Algorithms (DPAs)**

**Chapter 3. The Human Voice Source**

**3.1. Mechanism of Sound Generation at the Larynx**

**3.2. Operational Modes of the Larynx, Registers**

**3.3. The Glottal Source (Excitation) Signal**

**3.4. The Influence of the Vocal Tract Upon Voice Source Parameters**

**3.5. The Voiceless and the Transient Sources**

**Chapter 4. Measuring Range, Accuracy, Pitch Perception**

**4.1. The Range of Fundamental Frequency**

**4.2. Pitch Perception. Toward a Redefinition of the Task**

**4.21. Pitch Perception: Spectral and Virtual Pitch**

**4.22. Toward a Redefinition of the Task**

**4.23. Difference Limens for Fundamental-Frequency Change**

**4.3. Measurement Accuracy**

**4.4. Representation of the Pitch Information in the Signal**

**4.5. Calibration and Performance Evaluation of a PDA**

**Chapter 5. Manual and Instrumental Pitch Determination, Voicing Determination**

**5.1. Manual Pitch Determination**

**5.11. Time-Domain Manual Pitch Determination**

**5.12. Frequency-Domain Manual Pitch Determination**

**5.2. Pitch Determination Instruments (PDIs)**

**5.21. Clinical Methods for Larynx Inspection**

**5.22. Mechanical PDIs**

**5.23. Electric PDIs**

**5.24. Ultrasonic PDIs**

**5.25. Photoelectric PDIs (Transillumination of the Glottis)**

**5.26. Comparative Evaluation of PDIs**

**5.3. Voicing Determination - Selected Examples**

**5.31. Voicing Determination: Parameters**

**5.32. Voicing Determination - Simple Voicing Determination Algorithms (VDAs): Combined VDA-PDA Systems**

**5.33. Multiparameter VDSs. Voicing Determination by Means of Pattern Recognition Methods**

**5.34. Summary and Conclusions**

**Chapter 6. Time-Domain Pitch Determination**

**6.1. Pitch Determination by Fundamental-Harmonic Extraction**

**6.11. The Basic Extractor**

**6.12. The Simplest Pitch Determination Device - Low-Pass Filter and Zero (or Threshold) Crossings Analysis Basic Extractor**

**6.13. Enhancement of the First Harmonic by Nonlinear Means**

**6.14. Manual Preset and Tunable (Adaptive) Filters**

**6.2. The Other Extreme - Temporal Structure Analysis**

**6.21. Envelope Modeling - The Analog Approach**

**6.22. Simple Peak Detector and Global Correction**

**6.23. Zero Crossings and Excursion Cycles**

**6.24. Mixed-Feature Algorithms**

**6.25. Other PDAs That Investigate the Temporal Structure of the Signal**

**6.3. The Intermediate Device: Temporal Structure Transformation and Simplification**

**6.31. Temporal Structure Simplification by Inverse Filtering**

**6.32. The Discontinuity in the Excitation Signal: Event Detection**

**6.4. Parallel Processing in Fundamental Frequency Determination. Multichannel PDAs**

**6.41. PDAs with Multichannel Preprocessor Filters**

**6.42. PDAs with Several Channels Applying Different Extraction Principles**

**6.5. Special-Purpose (High-Accuracy) Time-Domain PDAs**

**6.51. Glottal Inverse Filtering**

**6.52. Determining the Instant of Glottal Closure**

**6.6. The Postprocessor**

**6.61. Time-to-Frequency Conversion: Display**

**6.62. F**_{0} Determination with Basic Extractor Omitted

**6.63. Glottal Error Correction Routines**

**6.64. Smoothing Pitch Contours**

**6.7. Final Comments**

**Chapter 7. Design and Implementation of a Time-Domain PDA for Undistorted and Band-Limited Signals**

**7.1. The Linear Algorithm**

**7.11. Prefiltering**

**7.12. Measurement and Supression of F**_{1}

**7.13. The Basic Extractor**

**7.14. Problems with the Formant F**_{2}, Implementation of a Multiple Two-Pulse Filter (TPF)

**7.15. Phase Relations and Starting Point of the Period**

**7.16. Performance of the Algorithm with Respect to Linear Distortions, Especially to Band Limitations**

**7.2. Band-Limited Signals in Time-Domain PDAs**

**7.21. Concept of the Universal PDA**

**7.22. Once More: Use of Nonlinear distortion in Time-Domain PDAs**

**7.3. An Experimental Study Towards a Universal Time-Domain PDA Applying a Nonlinear Function and a Threshold Analysis Basic Extractor**

**7.31. Setup of the Experiment**

**7.32. Relative Amplitude and Enhancement of First Harmonic**

**7.4. Toward a Choice of Optimal Nonlinear Functions**

**7.41. Selection with Respect to Phase Distortions**

**7.42. Selection with Respect to Amplitude Characteristics**

**7.43. Selection with Respect to the Sequence of Processing**

**7.5. Implementation of a Three-Channel PDA with Nonlinear Processing**

**7.51. Selection of Nonlinear Functions**

**7.52. Determination of the Parameter for the Comb Filter**

**7.53. Threshold Function in the Basic Extractor**

**7.54. Selection of the Most Likely Channel in the Basic Extractor**

**Chapter 8. Short-Term Analysis Pitch Determination**

**8.1. The Short-Tern Transformation and Its Consequences**

**8.2. Autocorrelation Pitch Determination**

**8.21. The Autocorrelation Function and Its Relation to the Power Spectrum**

**8.22. Analog Realizations**

**8.23. "Ordinary" Autocorrelation PDAs**

**8.24. Autocorrelation PDAs with Nonlinear Preprocessing**

**8.25. Autocorrelation PDAs with Linear Adaptive Preprocessing**

**8.3. "Autocorrelation" Pitch Determination: Average Magnitude Difference Function, Distance and Dissimilarity Measures, and Other Nonstationary Short-Term Analysis PDAs**

**8.31. Average Magnitude Difference Function (AMDF)**

**8.32. Generalized Distance Functions**

**8.33. Nonstationary Short-Term Analysis and Incremental Time-Domain PDAs**

**8.4. Multiple Spectral Transform ("Cepstrum") Pitch Determination**

**8.41. The More General Aspect: Deconvolution**

**8.42. Cepstrum Pitch Determination**

**8.5. Frequency-Domain PDAs**

**8.51. Spectral Compression: Frequency and Period Histogram; Product Spectrum**

**8.52. Harminc Matching. Psychoacoustic PDAs**

**8.53. Determination of F**_{0} from the Distance of Adjacent Spectral Peaks

**8.54. The Fast Fourier Transform, Spectral Resolution, and the Computing Effort**

**8.6. Maximum-Likelihood (Least-Squares) Pitch Determination**

**8.61. The Least-Squares Algorithm**

**8.62. A Multichannel Solution**

**8.63. Computing Complexity, Relation to Comb Filters, Simplified Realizations**

**8.7. Summary and Conclusions**

**Chapter 9. General Discussion: Summary, Error Analysis, Applications**

**9.1. A Short Survey of the Principle Methods of Pitch Determination**

**9.11. Categorization of PDAs and Definitions of Pitch**

**9.12. The Basic Extractor**

**9.13. The Postprocessor**

**9.14. Methods of Preprocessing**

**9.15. The Impact of Technology on the Design of PDAs and the Question of Computing Effort**

**9.2. Calibration, Search for Standards**

**9.21. Data Acquisition**

**9.22. Creating the Standard Pitch Contour Manually, Automatically, and by an Interactive PDA**

**9.23. Creating a Standard Contour by Means of a PDI**

**9.3. Performance Evaluation of PDAs**

**9.31. Comparative Performance Evaluation of PDAs: Some Examples from the Literature**

**9.32. Methods of Error Analysis**

**9.4. A Closer Look at the Applications**

**9.41. Has the Problem Been Solved?**

**9.42. Application in Phonetics, Linguistics, and Musicology**

**9.43. Application in Education and in Pathology**

**9.44. The "Technical" Application:Speech Communication**

**9.45. A Way Around the Problem in Speech Communication: Voice-Excited and Residual-Excited Vocoding (Baseband Coding)**

**9.5. Possible Paths Toward a General Solution**

**Appendix A. Experimental Data on the Behavior of Nonlinear Functions in Time-Domain Pitch Determination Algorithms**

**Appendix A1. The Data Base of the Investigation**

**Appendix A2. Examples for the Behavior of the Nonlinear Functions**

**Appendix A3. Relative Amplitude RA1 and Enhancement RE1 of the First Harmonic**

**Appendix A4. Relative Amplitude RASM of Spurious Maximum and Autocorrelation Threshold**

**Appendix A5. Processing Sequence, Preemphasis, Phase, Band Limitation**

**Appendix A6. Optimal Performance of Nonlinear Functions**

**Appendix A7. Performance of the Comb Filters**