Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia
James C. Houk (eds), 1998

I. Fundamentals

1. Information Processing in Modular Circuits Linking Basal Ganglia and Cerebral Cortex
James C. Houk

This chapter serves as an introduction to the theme of the entire book. Later chapters will expand upon the theory presented here.

There appear to be "large arrays" of similar circuits connecting reentrant thalamo-frontal loops with striatal spiny neurons. Each such circuit also has a branch passing through the pallidum. Houk presents the theory that dopamine-modulated spiny neurons in the striatum act as pattern recognizers sensitive to large numbers of cortical inputs. When a spiny neuron detects its pattern, it causes a momentary pause in an ongoing pallidal discharge, which turns on the connected reentrant thalamo-cortical loop. This constitutes a working memory of the detected pattern. A subloop passing through subthalamic areas can turn off the reentrant memory loop.

Three ways that an active thalamo-cortical reentrant loop could influence behavior are 1) by turning on a reentrant motor control loop via cortical connections to the motor strip area, 2) by controlling a pons-cerebellum pathway, or 3) by affecting other pattern detector striatal spiny neurons.

2. Context-dependent Activity in Primate Striatum Reflecting Past and Future Behavioral Events
Wolfram Schultz, Paul Apicella, Ranulfo Romo, and Eugenio Scarnati

3. The Contribution of Cortical Neurons to the Firing Pattern of Striatal Spiny Neurons
Charles J. Wilson

4. Elements of the Intrinsic Organization and Information Processing in the Neostriatum
Philip M. Groves, Marianela Garcia-Munoz, Jean C. Linder, Michael S. Manley, Maryann E. Martone, and Steven J. Young

Editor's Commentary on Part I

II. Motor Functions and Working Memories

5. Adaptive Neural Networks in the Basal Ganglia
Ann M. Graybiel and Minoru Kimura

6. Macro-organization of the Circuits Connecting the Basal Ganglia with the Cortical Motor Areas
Peter L. Strick, Richard P. Dum, and Nathalie Picard

7. Toward a Circuit Model of Working Memory and the Guidance of Voluntary Motor Action
Patricia S. Goldman-Rakic

8. Modeling the Roles of Basal Ganglia in Sequencing Saccadic Eye Movements
Michael A. Arbib and Peter F. Dominey

9. A State-Space Striatal Model
Christopher I. Connolly and J. Brian Burns

Editor's Commentary on Part II

III. Reward Mechanisms

10. Cellular Models of Reinforcement
Jeff Wickens and Rolf Kötter

11. Adaptive Critics and the Basal Ganglia
Andrew G. Barto

12. Reward-related Signals Carried by Dopamine Neurons
Wolfram Schultz, Ranulfo Romo, Tomas Ljungberg, Jacques Mirenowicz, Jeffrey R. Hollerman, and Anthony Dickinson

13. A Model of How the Basal Ganglia Generate and Use Neural Signals that Predict Reinforcement
James C. Houk, James L. Adams, and Andrew G. Barto

Editor's Commentary on Part III

IV. Cognitive and Memory Operations

14. Contribution of the Basal Ganglia to Skill Learning and Working Memory in Humans
John Gabrieli

15. Memory Limits in Sensorimotor Tasks
Dana H. Ballard, Mary M. Hayhoe, and Jeff Pelz

16. Neostriatal Circuitry as a Scalar Memory: Modeling and Ensemble Neuron Recording
Donald J. Woodward, Alexandre B. Kirillov, Christopher D. Myre, and Steven F. Sawyer

17. Sensorimotor Selection and the Basal Ganglia: A Neural Network Model
Stephen Jackson and George Houghton

Editor's Commentary on Part IV

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