Language and Its Structure
Ronald W. Langacker, 1967

Part 1. Basic Concepts

Chapter 1. By Way of Introduction

The Importance of Understanding Language


A Thumbnail History of Language Study

Chapter 2. An Initial Look at Language

Language Acquisition

On Origin and Species

Sound and Meaning

Linguistic Subsystems


Language and Thought

Chapter 3. Language in Society

Linguistic Diversity

Standardizing Tendencies


Part 2. Language Structure

Chapter 4. The Organization of Grammar

Simple Lexical Items

Complex Lexical Items

Phonological, Semantic, and Syntactic Representations

Meaning and Its Manifestation

Linguistic and Psychological Constraints

Chapter 5. Syntactic Systems

Surface Structures

Complex Sentences

The Relationship Between Conceptual and Surface Structures

Syntactic Rules

A Syntactic Sketch of a Sentence

Chapter 6. Phonological Systems

Articulatory Phonetics

Distinctive Differences

Phonological Rules


Part 3. Linguistic Relationships

Chapter 7. Language Change


Internal Change

Change and Language Acquisition

Dialects Revisited

Chapter 8. Genetic Relationships

Family Trees

The Comparative Method

The Interpretation of Sound Change

Languages of the World

Chapter 9. The Universality of Language Design

On the Nature of Language Acquisition

Language Universals


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