Introduction to Government & Binding Theory
Liliane Haegeman, 1991

Preface

Introduction: The Chomskian Perspective on Language Study

Introduction

1 Linguistics: The Science of Language

2 The Native Speaker: Grammaticality and Acceptability

2.1 Descriptive Adequacy

2.2 Grammaticality and Acceptability

2.3 The Grammar as a System of Principles and Rules

3 Knowledge of Language: Universal and Specific Properties of Language

3.1 Explanatory Adequacy and Language Acquisition

3.2 Universal Grammar

3.3 Parameters and Universal Grammar

3.4 Language Learning and Language Acquisition

4 The Generative Linguist

5 Language Acquisition: Some Speculation

6 Purpose and Organization of This Book

6.1 General Purpose

6.2 Organization

7 Exercises

Chapter 1. The Lexicon and Sentence Structure

Introduction and Overview

1 The Units of Syntactic Analysis

2 Words and Phrases

3 Predicates and Arguments

3.1 Subcategorization

3.2 Argument Structure and Thematic Structure

3.2.1 Argument Structure in Logic

3.2.2 Argument Structure in Natural Language

3.2.3 Theta Theory

4 The Projection Principle

5 The Assignment of Thematic Roles

5.1 Clausal Arguments

5.2 Expletives

5.2.1 It and Extraposition

5.2.2 There and Existential Sentences

5.2.3 Conclusion

5.3 Main Verbs and Auxiliaries

6 The Extended Projection Principle (EPP)

7 Thematic Roles: Further Discussion

7.1 The Syntactic Realization of Theta Roles

7.2 The Subject Theta Role

8 Summary

9 Exercises

Chapter 2. Phrase Structure

Introduction and Overview

1 Syntactic Structure: Recapitulation

2 The Structure of Phrases

2.1 The Verb Phrase

2.1.1 Layered VPs

2.1.2 The Order of Constituents

2.1.3 Extending the Proposal

2.2 Noun Phrases

2.3 Adjective Phrases

2.4 Prepositional Phrases

2.5 X-Bar Theory

3 The Structure of Sentences

3.1 Introduction: The Problem

3.2 S as a Projection of INFL

3.2.1 AUX and Tense

3.2.2 Agreement

3.2.3 Infinitival Clauses

3.2.4 The Structure of IP

3.3 S' as a Projection of C

3.3.1 C as the Head of CP

3.3.2 Head-to-Head Movement

3.3.3 The Structure of CP

3.4 Summary: X'-Theory and Non-Lexical Categories

3.5 Small Clauses: a Problem

4 Structural Relations

4.1 Agreement Patterns

4.2 C-Command and Government

4.2.1 C-Command and the First Branching Node

4.2.2 Government

4.2.3 M-Command and Government

5 Learnability and Binary Branching: Some Discussion

6 Features and Category Labels

7 Summary

8 Exercises

Chapter 3. Case Theory

Introduction and Overview

1 Morphology and Abstract Case

2 Structural Case: NOMINATIVE and ACCUSATIVE

2.1 Complements: ACCUSATIVE

2.2 Subjects: NOMINATIVE and ACCUSATIVE

2.2.1 NOMINATIVE Subjects

2.2.2 The Subject of Infinitival Clauses

2.2.2.1 For as a Case-Marker

2.2.2.2 Exceptional Case-Marking

2.2.2.3 Small Clauses

2.3 Summary

3 Adjectives and Nouns

3.1 Of-Insertion

3.2 Failure of of-Insertion

3.3 Inherent Case in German: Some Examples

4 Adjacency and Case Assignment

5 Passivization: Discussion

5.1 Passivization and Argument Structure

5.2 Case Absorption

5.3 The Properties of Passivization

5.4 Passive and Inherent Case

5.4.1 German

5.4.2 The Double Object Construction in English: Discussion

6 Visibility

6.1 Explaining the Case Filter

6.2 Movement and Chains (Introduction)

7 Summary

8 Exercises

Chapter 4. Anaphoric Relations and Overt NPs

Introduction and Overview

1 Reflexives

1.1 Binding and Antecedent

1.2 Locality Constraints

1.3 Structural Relations between Antecedent and Reflexive

1.4 The Domain of Reflexive Binding

1.4.1 Governors

1.4.2 Subjects

1.4.3 Complete Functional Complex

1.4.4 Subject and Big SUBJECT

1.4.5 Accessible SUBJECT and the i-within-i Filter

1.5 Reflexive Interpretation: Summary

2 Anaphors: Reflexives and Reciprocals

3 Pronouns

4 Referential Expressions

5 The Binding Theory

6 Discussion Section: Problems in the Binding Theory

6.1 Implicit Arguments

6.2 Possessive Pronouns and Anaphors

7 NP Types and Features

7.1 NPs as Feature Complexes

7.2 The Binding Theory in Terms of Features

7.3 The Last NP

8 Appendix: Circularity

9 Summary

10 Exercises

Chapter 5. Non-Overt Categories: PRO and Control

Introduction and Overview

1 The Non-Overt Subject of Infinitivals

1.1 Understood Arguments

1.2 The Extended Projection Principle

1.3 The Binding Theory

2 PRO: Pronominal and Anaphoric

3 The Distribution of PRO

3.1 The Data

3.2 PRO and Overt NPs

3.3 PRO Must be Ungoverned: the PRO Theorem

3.4 Other Non-Finite Clauses and PRO

4 Properties of Control

4.1 Obligatory Control and Optional Control

4.2 Subject Control vs. Object Control

4.3 C-Command and Obligatory Control

4.4 The Controller: Argument Control

5 Control Patterns

5.1 PRO in Complement Clauses

5.2 Passivization and Control

5.3 PRO in Adjunct Clauses

5.4 PRO in Subject Clauses

6 Summary

7 Exercises

Chapter 6. Transformations: NP-Movement

Introduction and Overview

1 Movement Transformations

1.1 Passivization: Recapitulation

1.2 Questions

1.2.1 Survey

1.2.2 Yes-No Questions

1.2.3 Echo Questions

1.2.4 Wh-Questions

1.3 Syntactic Representations

2 NP-Movement

2.1 Introduction: Passive and Raising

2.2 Traces

2.2.1 Theta Theory

2.2.2 The Extended Projection Principle

2.2.3 Local Processes

2.3 Some Properties of NP-Movement

2.3.1 Properties of A-Chains

2.3.2 C-Command

2.4 Raising Adjectives

3 Burzio's Generalization

3.1 Case-Marking and Argument Structure

3.2 Unaccusatives in Italian

3.2.1 Ne-Cliticization

3.2.2 Auxiliary Selection

3.3 One-Argument Verbs in English

3.3.1 Raising Predicates

3.3.2 Verbs of Movement and (Change of) State

3.3.3 Ergative-Causative Pairs

4 Levels of Representation and Principles of the Grammar

4.1 The Structure Preserving Principle

4.2 The Theta Criterion

4.3 The Extended Projection Principle

4.4 The Case Filter

4.5 The Binding Theory

4.5.1 Level of Application

4.5.2 The Feature Composition of NP-Traces

5 Appendix: Subjects and Derived Subjects

6 Summary

7 Exercises

Chapter 7. Wh-Movement

Introduction and Overview

1 Wh-Movement: Some Examples

2 The Target of Movement: wh-Phrases

3 The Landing Site of wh-Movement

3.1 Long vs. Short Movement

3.2 C-Command

3.3 Wh-Movement and Substitution

3.4 The Doubly Filled COMP Filter

3.5 Adjunction

3.5.1 General Discussion

3.5.2 Wh-Movement as Adjunction?

3.6 Movement of Maximal Projections: A Comparison

4 Traces and wh-Movement

4.1 Theta Theory and the Projection Principle

4.2 Agreement and Binding

4.3 Case

4.3.1 Wh-Pronouns and Case

4.3.2 Wh-Trace vs. NP-Trace: More Contrasts

4.4 Adjunct Traces

5 Subject Movement

5.1 Vacuous Movement

5.2 The that-Trace Filter

6 Bounding Theory

6.1 Island Constraints

6.2 Subjacency

6.3 Subjacency as a Diagnostic for Movement

6.3.1 Left Dislocation: Movement and Copying?

6.3.2 Relative Clauses and wh-Movement

6.3.3 Relative Clauses and Resumptive Pronouns

6.3.4 NP-Movement

6.4 The Subjacency Parameter

7 Binding Theory and Traces of wh-Movement

7.1 Typology of NPs

7.2 Crossover

8 Movement to the Right in English

8.1 Heavy NP-Shift

8.2 PP-Extraposition from NP

8.3 Conclusion

9 Summary

10 Exercises

Chapter 8. An Inventory of Empty Categories

Introduction and Overview

1 Null Elements in English: An Inventory

1.1 D-Structure Representations

1.2 Identification of Null Elements

1.3 Government

1.4 The Binding Theory and the Classification of NP-Types

1.4.1 The Typology of NPs

1.4.2 NP-Trace and PRO

1.4.3 NP-Trace and wh-Trace

2 Null Elements in a Grammar

2.1 Formal Licensing: The Empty Category Principle

2.2 Subjacency and ECP

2.3 Some Problems

2.3.1 Adjunct Movement and ECP

2.3.2 Subject Movement

3 Non-Overt Subjects: The pro-Drop Parameter

3.1 The Gap in the Paradigm: pro

3.1.1 Null Subjects in Italian

3.1.2 Inflection and pro

3.1.3 The Typology of Null Elements: Some Discussion

3.2 Cross-Linguistic Variation: The pro-Drop Parameter

3.3 Licensing of pro

3.4 Discussion: the pro-Drop Parameter and the Subset Principle

4 Non-Overt Antecedents of wh-Movement

4.1 Relative Clauses

4.1.1 Empty Operators and Object Relatives

4.1.2 Subject Relatives

4.2 Further Examples of Empty Operators

4.2.1 Infinitival Relatives

4.2.2 Infinitival Adjuncts

4.2.3 Principle C and Operator Binding

5 Parasitic Gaps

5.1 Description

5.2 The PRO Hypothesis

5.3 Parasitic Gaps are Traces

5.4 Conclusion

6 Summary

7 Exercises

Chapter 9. Logical Form and Phonetic Form

Introduction and Overview

1 Operator and Variable

1.1 The Interpretation of Quantifiers

1.2 Wh-Phrases and Operators

1.3 Move-Alpha and LF

1.4 LF Movement in English: wh-in situ

1.5 Wh-Movement and Parametric Variation

2 The ECP

2.1 ECP Effects at LF

2.1.1 Subject-Object Asymmetries

2.1.2 Complement vs. Non-Complement and ECP

2.2 The Application of the ECP

2.2.1 That-Trace Effects

2.2.2 Two Assumptions

2.2.2.1 Assumption 1: Level of Gamma-Marking

2.2.2.2 Assumption 2: Deletion at LF

2.2.3 Applying the Proposal

3 Intermediate Traces and the ECP

3.1 The Problem

3.2 Intermediate Traces and Antecedent-Government

3.3 Intermediate Traces Must be Antecedent-Governed

4 Quantifiers

4.1 LF Representations and the Scope of Quantifiers

4.2 Subject-Object Asymmetries and French Negation

4.3 VP-Adjunction of Quantifiers

5 A Note on Parasitic Gaps

6 Summary

7 Exercises

Chapter 10. Barriers: An Introduction

Introduction and Overview

1 Maximal Projections: Transparent or Opaque?

1.1 Case-Marking and Proper Government

1.1.1 Infinitival IP

1.1.2 Finite IP

1.1.3 Transparent CP

1.1.4 Transparent Small Clauses

1.1.5 Conclusion

1.2 PRO

1.2.1 Opaque Small Clauses

1.2.2 Opaque CP

1.3 Conclusion: Maximal Projections May or May Not be Barriers

1.4 Defining Barriers

1.4.1 L-Marking

1.4.2 Inheritance

1.5 Unifying Subjacency and Government

2 Subjacency and Barriers

2.1 Movement and Adjunction

2.1.1 Short Movement and Long Movement

2.1.2 VP-Adjunction

2.2 Island Violations

3 ECP and Barriers

3.1 Degree of Grammaticality: Subjacency and ECP

3.1.1 Example 1: Extraction from a Relative Clause

3.1.2 Example 2: Extraction from an Adjunct

3.1.3 Example 3: Extraction from a Subject Clause

3.1.4 Extraction from Complements

3.2 Extraction: Summary

4 Discussion Section: Further Data

4.1 Subjects and the Vacuous Movement Hypothesis

4.2 Noun Complement Clauses

5 A-Chains

6 Summary

7 Exercises

Chapter 11. Aspects of the Syntax of Germanic Languages: Word-Order Variation and Government and Binding Theory

Introduction and Overview

1 Movement Transformations in English: A Survey

2 Word-Order in Dutch and German

2.1 SOV and SVO?

2.2 Verb Second

2.3 Further Arguments for SOV

2.3.1 Non-Finite Clauses

2.3.2 Verb-Particle Combinations

2.4 Extraposition

2.5 Summary: Dutch and German as SOV Languages

3 Scrambling

3.1 Scrambling

3.2 Scrambling vs. wh-Movement

3.3 Scrambling as a Stylistic Rule or a Syntactic Rule?

3.4 Summary

4 Summary

5 Exercises

Chapter 12. Romance Languages: Subjects and Objects

Introduction and Overview

1 Non-Overt Objects in Romance Languages

1.1 Null Objects in Portuguese

1.1.1 Identifying the Empty Category

1.1.2 Null Operators

1.1.3 The Pre-Movement Structure

1.1.4 Conclusion

1.2 Non-Overt Objects in Italian

1.2.1 The Data

1.2.2 Control by the Understood Object

1.2.3 Constraints on the Interpretation of the Non-Overt Object

1.2.4 The Identification of the Empty Category

1.3 Summary: Non-Overt Elements in Object Positions

2 Pronouns and Clitics

2.1 Object Pronouns and Clitics

2.1.1 French Object Pronouns

2.1.2 Strong Forms and Weak Forms

2.1.3 Object Clitics in Italian and Spanish

2.2 Subject Pronouns in French

2.3 Movement and the Model of the Grammar

3 Summary

4 Exercises


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