Foundations of Cognitive Grammar, Vol II - Descriptive Application
Ronald W. Langacker, 1991

Review and Introduction

Part I. Nominal Structure

Chapter 1. Nouns

1.1. Conceptual Basis

1.1.1. A Cognitive Model

1.1.2. An Abstract Characterization

1.1.3. A Polar Opposition

1.2. Nominalization

1.2.1. Kinds

1.2.1.1. Alternate Profiling

1.2.1.2. Type vs. Instance Nominalizations

1.2.2. Periphrasis

1.2.3. Predictability

Chapter 2. Nominals: Functional Organization

2.1. Semantic Functions

2.2. Instantiation

2.2.1. Type vs. Instance

2.2.2. Proper Names

2.2.3. Type Hierarchies

2.2.4. Predicate Nominative Constructions

2.2.5. Role Specifications

2.3. Quanitity

2.3.1. Number

2.3.2. Quantifiers

2.4. Epistemic Predications

Chapter 3. Nominals: Grounding and Quantification

3.1. Definiteness

3.1.1. The Definite Article

3.1.2. The Indefinite Article

3.2. Relative Quantifiers

3.2.1. Proportional Quantifiers

3.2.2. Other Universal Quantifiers

3.3. Quantificational Interactions

3.3.1. Replicate Processes and Participants

3.3.2. Quantifier Scope

3.3.3. Scope of Negation

Chapter 4. Nominal Constructions

4.1. Structural Organization

4.1.1. Canonical Structure

4.1.2. Other Configurations

4.2. Patterns and Restrictions

4.2.1. Class Schemas

4.2.2. Constructional Schemas

4.2.3. Larger Configurations

4.3. Functional Alternatives

4.3.1. Noun Classifiers

4.3.2. Possessive Constructions

4.3.2.1. Abstract Possession

4.3.2.2. Basic Constructions

4.3.2.3. Other Constructions

4.4. Inflection and Agreement

4.4.1. Noun Classes

4.4.2. Gender Inflections

4.4.3. Agreement Patterns

Part II. Clause Structure

Chapter 5. The Auxiliary: Clausal Head

5.1. Function and Organization

5.2. Voice and Aspect

5.2.1. The Passive Construction

5.2.2. The Progressive Construction

5.2.3. The Perfect Construction

5.2.3.1. Current Relevance

5.2.3.2. Subjectivication

5.2.3.3. Synthesis

5.3. Patterns and Structure

5.3.1. The Basic System

5.3.2. Restrictions

5.3.3. Componentiality

5.3.4. Auxiliary Verbs

Chapter 6. The Auxiliary: Grounding

6.1. Epistemic Distance

6.2. Tense

6.2.1. A Naive Characterization

6.2.2. Sequence of Tenses

6.2.2.1. Indirect Speech

6.2.2.2. Reported Modals

6.2.2.3. Additional Matters

6.2.3. Present Tense

6.2.3.1. A Structured World

6.2.3.2. A Shifted Deictic Center

6.3. Modals

6.3.1. Historical Development

6.3.2. The Dynamic Evolutionary Model

Chapter 7. Transitivity and Grammatical Relations

7.1. The Conception of Events

7.1.1. Models and Archetypes

7.1.2. Conceptual Autonomy

7.1.3. Starting Points

7.2. The Coding of Events

7.2.1. Coding and Construal

7.2.2. Unmarked Coding

7.3. Basic Grammatical Relations

7.3.1. Subject

7.3.1.1. Topicality

7.3.1.2. A Schematic Definition

7.3.1.3. Subject and Topic

7.3.1.4. Universality

7.3.2. Direct Object

7.3.3. Indirect Object

Chapter 8. Marked Clause Structure

8.1. Choice of Subject

8.1.1. The Effect of Profiling

8.1.2. Voice

8.1.3. Setting vs. Participant

8.1.3.1. Relevance to Transitivity

8.1.3.2. Setting-Subject Constructions

8.1.3.3. Double-Subject Constructions

8.1.3.4. Abstract Settings

8.2. Choice of Object

8.3. Nondistinct Argument Phenomena

8.3.1. Process vs. Participant

8.3.2. Reflexivization

8.3.3. Unspecificity

Chapter 9. Ergativity and Case

9.1. Ergative vs. Accusative

9.2. Ergativity

9.2.1. Correlates of Autonomy

9.2.2. Absolute Construal

9.2.3. Discourse Function

9.2.3.1. Introducing Discourse Participants

9.2.3.2. Antipassives

9.2.4. Split Ergative

9.3. Case Marking

9.3.1. Meaningfulness

9.3.2. Case-Marking Constructions

9.4. Causative Constructions

9.4.1. Grammatical Relations

9.4.2. Case

Part III. Beyond the Clause

Chapter 10. Complex Sentences

10.1. General Discussion

10.1.1. Internal Elaboration

10.1.2. Connectors

10.1.3. Referential Linkage

10.1.4. Global Organization

10.2. Complementation

10.2.1. Complemetizers

10.2.1.1. Conceptual Subordination

10.2.1.2. Temporal Coincidence

10.2.1.3. Objectivity

10.2.2. Raising

10.2.2.1. Critique

10.2.2.2. The Active-Zone Analysis

10.2.2.3. Raising vs. Equi

Chapter 11. Further Issues

11.1. Rule Interactions

11.2. Coordination

11.2.1. Conjunctions

11.2.2. Level of Coordination

11.2.3. Differentiation of Conjuncts

11.2.4. Phonological Coinstantiation

11.3. Anaphora

11.4. Speech Acts

11.4.1. Domains and Organization

11.4.2. Viewing Arrangements

11.4.3. Basic Sentence Types

Chapter 12. Theoretical Discussion

12.1. Metaphors, Goals, and Expectations

12.2. The Autonomy Issue

12.2.1. Defining the Issue

12.2.2. Assessing the Symbolic Alternative

12.3. Processing, Rules, and Representations

12.3.1. The Connectionist Alternative

12.3.2. The Representation of Linguistic Structure

12.3.2.1. A Spectrum of Positions

12.3.2.2. The Nature of Linguistic Rules


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