Biological Foundations of Language
Eric H. Lenneberg, 1967

Chapter 1. The Conceptual Framework

Section 1.1. Thesis: Biological Considerations are Necessary for an Understanding of Behavior

Section 1.2. Form and Function in Ontogeny

Section 1.3. Behavioral Specificity and the Problem of Plasticity

Section 1.4. Genetic Foundations of Behavior

Section 1.5. Relationship between Form and Behavior

Section 1.6. Conclusions

Chapter 2. Morphological Correlates

Section 2.1. Introduction

Section 2.2. Periphery

Section 2.3. Central Nervous System

Section 2.4. Conclusion

Chapter 3. Some Physiological Correlates

Section 3.1. Aim of Physiological Discussion in this Monograph

Section 3.2. Respiration

Section 3.3. Speech Production

Section 3.4. Problems Arising from Rate and Ordering

Section 3.5. The Problem of the Organizing Principle: Rhythm

Section 3.6. Summary

Chapter 4. Language in the Context of Growth and Maturation

Section 4.1. Characteristics of Maturation of Behavior

Section 4.2. Emergence of Speech and Language

Section 4.3. Age Limitations to Language Acquisition

Section 4.3a. Preliminary Summary

Section 4.4. Concomitants of Physical Maturation

Section 4.5. Growth Characteristics of the Human Brain and their Possible Relationship to Language Acquisition

Section 4.6. Further Comments on the "Critical Period" for Language Acquisition

Section 4.7. Summary and Conclusion

Chapter 5. Neurological Aspects of Speech and Language

Section 5.1. Clinical Symptoms of Speech and Language Disorders

Section 5.2. The Underlying Pathology

Section 5.3. Clinical Syndromes

Section 5.4. Theoretical Interpretations

Section 5.5. Postscript on Innate Mechanisms for Perception and Production

Section 5.6. Conclusion

Chapter 6. Language in the Light of Evolution and Genetics

Section 6.1. Limitations on Inferences from Animal Comparison

Section 6.2. Are Biological Theories of Language Development Compatible with Concepts of Genetics

Section 6.3. Evidence for Inheritance of Language Potential

Section 6.4. Limitations on Reconstruction and "Dating" of the History of Language

Section 6.5. Summary

Chapter 7. Primitive Stages in Language Development

Section 7.1. The Problem

Section 7.2. Prelanguage Development

Section 7.3. Evolvement of Language in the Healthy Child

Section 7.4. Further Elucidation of Language Acquisition through the Study of Defective Children

Section 7.5. Summary and Conclusion

Chapter 8. Language and Cognition

Section 8.1. The Problem

Section 8.2. Toward a Biological Conception of Semantics

Section 8.3. The Empirical Study of Naming: The Language of Experience

Section 8.4. Naming and the Cognitive Processes

Section 8.5. Postscript to So-Called Language Relativity

Section 8.6. Summary

Chapter 9. Toward a Biological Theory of Language Development (General Summary)

Section 9.1. Five General Premises

Section 9.2. A Concise Statement of the Theory

Section 9.3. Explanatory Power of the Theory

Section 9.4. Biological Foundations of History and Distribution of Natural Languages

Section 9.5. Innate Mechanisms

Appendix A. Noam Chomsky: The Formal Nature of Language

Appendix B. Otto Marx: The History of the Biological Basis for Language

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