Acoustics of American English Speech
Joseph P. Olive et.al., 1993

Preface

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. American English Phonemes

2.1 The Phonemes of American English

2.2 Consonants

2.2.1 Voicing

2.2.2 Place of Articulation

2.2.3 Manner of Articulation

2.2.4 Consonant Classification

2.3 Vowels

2.3.1 Vowels Described by Binary Features

2.3.2 Vowels Classified by Tongue Position

2.3.3 Diphthongs

2.4 Phonological Processes

2.4.1 Allophonic Variation

2.4.2 Assimilation, Deletion, Addition, Subtraction and Reduction

2.5 Summary

Chapter 3. Speech and Sound

3.1 The Properties of Sound

3.1.1 Periodic Vibrations

3.1.2 Sinusoidal Vibrations

3.1.3 Damped Sinusoids

3.1.4 Complex Signals

3.1.5 Normal Modes of Vibration

3.1.6 The Spectrum

3.1.7 Noisy Sounds

3.1.8 Resonance

3.2 The Acoustics of Speech Sounds

3.2.1 The Vocal Apparatus

3.2.2 The Vocal Apparatus as a Woodwind Instrument

3.2.3 The Vocal Cords - The Periodic Source

3.2.4 The Tract - The Resonator

3.2.5 Looking at Speech

3.3 Summary

Chapter 4. Static Properties of Speech Sounds

4.1 Consonants

4.1.1 Stops

4.1.2 Fricatives

4.1.3 Nasals

4.1.4 Liquids and Glides

4.2 Vowels

4.2.1 The Front Vowels

4.2.2 The Back Vowels

4.2.3 The Central Vowels

4.2.4 The Vowel Space

4.3 Summary

Chapter 5. Vowel Transitions

5.1 Vowels and Glides

5.1.1 Diphthongs

5.1.2 Vowel-to-Glide Transitions

5.1.3 Glide-to-Vowel Transitions

5.2 Vowel-to-Vowel Transitions

5.2.1 Continuous Transitions

5.2.2 Discontinuous Transitions: Glottal Stops

Chapter 6. Obstruent and Vowel Transitions

6.1 Stops and Vowels

6.1.1 Voiced Stop-to-Vowel Transitions

6.1.2 Vowel-to-Voiced Stop Transitions

6.1.3 Voiceless Stops-to-Vowel Transitions

6.1.4 Vowels-to-Voiceless Stop Transitions

6.1.5 Summary

6.2 Fricatives and Vowels

6.2.1 Labiodentals

6.2.2 Dentals

6.2.3 Alveolars

6.2.4 Palato-Alveolars

6.2.5 Summary

Chapter 7. Consonantal Sonorants and Vowels

7.1 Nasals and Vowels

7.1.1 Nasal-to-Vowel Transitions

7.1.2 Vowel-to-Nasal Transitions

7.1.3 The Extent of Nasality

7.1.4 Summary

7.2 Vowels and the Lateral Liquid

7.2.1 Light /l/-to-Vowel Transitions

7.2.2 Vowel-to-Dark /l/ Transition

7.2.3 Vowel-to-Light /l/ Transition

7.2.4 Dark /l/-to-Vowel Transition

7.2.5 Intervocalic Light and Dark /l/

7.2.6 Summary

7.3 Vowels and the Retroflex Liquid

7.3.1 Dark /r/-to-Vowel Transitions

7.3.2 Vowel to Dark /r/ Transitions

7.3.3 Light /r/

7.3.4 Summary

Chapter 8. Consonantal Interactions

8.1 Obstruent-Obstruent Interactions

8.1.1 Stop-Stop Interactions

8.1.2 Affricates and Stop-Fricative Interactions

8.1.3 Fricative-Stop Interactions

8.1.4 Fricative-Fricative Interactions

8.2 Obstruent-Sonorant Interactions

8.2.1 Fricative-Nasal Interactions

8.2.2 Stop-Nasal Interactions

8.2.3 Stop-Liquid and Stop-Glide Interactions

8.2.4 Fricative-Liquid and Fricative-Glide Interactions

8.3 Sonorant-Obstruent Interactions

8.3.1 Nasal-Obstruent Interactions

8.3.2 Liquid-Obstruent Interactions

8.4 Sonorant-Sonorant Interactions

Chapter 9. Acoustic Variability

9.1 Two Variable Sounds

9.1.1 The Consonant /h/

9.1.2 Reduced Vowels

9.2 Consonantal Variability

9.2.1 The Variability of Oral Stops

9.2.2 The Variability of Fricatives

9.2.3 Variability in the Liquids, Nasals and Glides

9.2.4 Syllabic Consonants

9.3 Vowel and Diphthong Variation

9.3.1 The Long Vowels

9.3.2 The Short Vowels

9.3.3 The Diphthongs

9.4 Additional Factors of Acoustic Variability

9.4.1 Variations Due to Different Speakers

9.4.2 Rate Variation

9.5 Dialectal Variation

9.5.1 American English Dialect Regions

9.5.2 Differences in Dialects

9.6 Conclusion


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